The Growth of Enterprise Pedagogy: How ICT Policy is Infected by Neo-Liberalism

In all honesty I found “The Growth of Enterprise Pedagogy: How ICT policy is infected by Neo-Liberalism” quite difficult to understand and a little boring having to re-read the same paragraph several times to make sense of what Brown wanted to point out, i also found the references used in first part of the article to be out-dated (there was no quotes from a recent time period; most of the quotes were 7- 10 years old, which made the article difficult to find relevance in today’s society).  Even though I thought this I did manage to find a key point which was thought provoking and very relevant to today’s politicians and their policies regarding education and ICT.

This thought provoking point was about how teachers are often seen as “policy consumers rather than policy producers” (Brown, 2005). Dr Mark Brown states that this is seen as problematic since teachers are not engaged in meaningful discussions about ethical, moral and political questions. Many policies regarding teaching and pedagogy have no real input from educators who are out in the teaching field, instead politicians make the decisions about policies regarding education and pedagogy with no real knowledge about teaching.

“Teaching is inherently a political activity and the policy choices we make of what to emphasize in the curriculum are political decisions.” –Brown, 2005.

Since politicians are making all the decisions regarding ICT and education it can be highly biased, persuading teachers to embrace ICT without having all the real knowledge about the pros and cons of it.  Politicians see ICT as being beneficial for economic objectives rather than promoting the goals of equity, fairness and social justice,  Brown sums this idea up nicely by explaining that “the new ways of e-learning through ICT are infected by the ideological language of a kind of  enterprise pedagogy”  (this can be seen in Figure 1 in the Brown article p.19). However since the politicians are in control of the policies they can persuade teachers to enforce these policies and this so-called “enterprise pedagogy” instead of critiquing it.

As teachers we must be critical of these policies and stop being persuaded by politics and politicians, if we are to re-claim the true meaning of pedagogy in education and ICT. Brown says we must ask ourselves these questions if we are to change the direction of the reform of schools through ICT:

Who is telling the ICT story and Why?

How are they telling the ICT story?

How are different people understanding and responding to the ICT message?

What is missing? Whose voice is not being heard? Whose story is not being told?


More information about Neo-Liberalism in education




Brown, M. (2005). The growth of enterprise pedagogy: How ICT policy is infected by neo-liberalism. Australian Educational Computing, 20(2), 16-22.


A bridge too far? Explaining beginning teachers’ use of ICT in Australian schools

Integration of ICT in the classroom


It seems like the message about ICT in education about being beneficial in engaging student learning, promoting student-centered learning and actually taking into account that the positives outweigh the negatives when incorporating ICT in the classroom (Isard, 2012) isn’t quite getting through or is simply being ignored or might be getting lost in translation.

I think this because of a recent article I read which was about a study of how young teachers use ICT within the classroom, this study was not only centred on how young teachers use technology in the classroom but also what technology was available to them, what technological support was available and what support the school gave to teachers wanting to embrace and use ICT in the classroom regularly.

The study followed 3 young teachers and their experience with technology in the classroom, I was quite surprised to find that many of the teachers did not have access to adequate technology (Bate, 2010, table 1); it was also very eye-opening to see that the school/principal’s support in ICT is crucial otherwise ICT in the classroom will not be productive. The study also found that during the first 3 years of teaching the young  teachers did not use ICT in ways that could contribute to their pedagogical beliefs due to facing a mix of constraints which resulted  in using ICT in a way that was more teacher centred and not very creative (Bate, 2010, p.10).

As a 2nd year education student I have found that at the moment there is an immense focus on how to incorporate ICT in the classroom, however this can be quite a challenge if when I graduate, I find myself in a school where there is limited support in helping teachers incorporate ICT use in the classroom or there is simply an inadequate supply of technology in the classroom (e.g. 3 computers for a class of 25). This is the position many of the young teachers who participated in the study found themselves in, “with current class sizes, it is impossible to use the computers meaningfully for student directed activity other than for interactive games.” (Mike, 2008, p.8)

ICT is supposed to support student directed learning so if there are not enough computers in a classroom to do this, why bother with ICT in the first place? By reading this article and countless others it is clear there is a complex system that must be united in order for ICT to be incorporated in schools effectively. Bate (2010) states that this complex system can be divided in 3 sections individual, school and systemic levels of education (p.15).

So for ICT to be integrated effectively into the classroom, technology and pedagogy must be united as one, the school leadership must also have an active interest in supporting ICT; this means the school must provide easy access to ICT and have a positive attitude towards it being used in the classroom, Bate (2010) also raises the issue that schools may need a structural reform…

Well now we know the recipe for how to incorporate ICT into schools effectively all we have to do now is follow the procedure….SO LETS GET TO IT!

Bate, F. (2010). A bridge too far? Explaining beginning teachers’ use of ICT in Australian schools.  Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(7), 1-19. Retrieved from

Isard, J. (2012) Why mobile technology makes sense in the 21st century classroom. The Professional Educator. Retrieved from

Baskin,C.,& Williams,M. (2006). ICT integration in schools: where are we now and what comes next?. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 22(4), 455-473. Retrieved from

Why mobile technology makes sense in the 21st century classroom

It’s clear the ‘traditional’ classroom is beginning to take on a new shape…..BEHOLD THE 21ST CENTURY CLASSROOM IS HERE!

The 21st century classroom to me is a classroom where technology is incorporated into everyday learning, it’s those tech savvy classrooms which use iPads to teach core subjects instead of relying on out dated , non-interactive (in other words… boring) text books.
Justine Isard (2012) argues that this is a fantastic way of making teaching and learning more real and relevant, she explains this is the case because the current generation, which has become known as the ‘Touch Generation’ (due to a huge exposure to tablets/touch technology in their lives) are closely linked to their mobile technology. I agree the ‘ Touch Generation’ seems to be super glued to their mobile technology… just look around you are bound to see a young person with a tablet or mobile phone in their hands or at least close by them.

So we now understand that by using mobile technology in the classroom, the teaching and learning experience will become more relevant for students, not only that but it can become more ‘student centred’ and students can learn at their own pace (Isard ,2012 ). However that doesn’t mean that as teachers we can start handing out iPads and expect students to do their own learning. John Hattie has found that the effectiveness of a teacher accounts for 30% of variance in students learning (Hattie, 2003, P. 2). This means teachers must have a clear focus on the learning outcomes they want their students to achieve, an iPad is there simply to enhance the learning experience (Isard, 2012)

The 21st century classroom may be taking shape right now but there will always be one thing that will remain the same and that is, the teacher’s role, the teacher will always have control of their classroom, therefore it will become the teacher’s choice on how they will incorporate the use of mobile technology in their lessons. Mobile technology like the iPad will NEVER replace the teacher’s role in the classroom.


Hattie, J. (2003). Distinguishing expert teachers from novice and experienced teachers: Teacher’s make a difference, What is the research evidence? , 1-7. Retrieved from

Isard, J. (2012). Why mobile technology makes sense in the 21st Century
classroom. Retrieved from Blackboard.

Too Cool for School? No Way!


How does technology fit into education?

The media today is heavily focused on technology in schools broadcasting it as a new phenomenon however; technology in schools is not a new phenomenon (Park 2008), for years education has been changing from using simple technologies like a projector to more advanced ones like an interactive smart board, now classrooms have even begun to integrate iPads into daily lessons – a technology which has not been specifically designed for educational use.

The introduction of technology into schools has raised many issues and opportunities for our students and teachers, Due to technology not being solely invented for educational purposes teachers must be creative, smart and manipulate or ’re-purpose’ technology to suit educational needs (Mishra and Koehler 2009), a way they can do this is to follow the TPACK framework.

The TPACK framework recognises that the two main features of teaching is pedagogy and subject matter, educators must be aware of how they can use pedagogy to make the content matter accessible to students so they can understand it. By highlighting the 2 main features of teaching and incorporating them into technology use in education, the TPACK (technological pedagogical and content knowledge) framework is created.

Teachers must have the knowledge concerning the use of technology and be willing to experiment with new technologies that may be beneficial to education. By following the TPACK framework educators and students can reap the benefits of using technology in education.

Park, E.Y., (2012). Technology in Education: A Teacher’s Perspective. Retrieved from

Mishra, P.,& Koehler,. M. (2009). Too Cool for School? No Way!: Using the TPACK framework. Learning & Leading with Technology, 14-18. Retrieved from Blackboard.

ICT’s in Education

Review of ICT’s to use in education.


Description: Simple Brainstroming/mind mapping tool

Advantages: Free, easy to use, easily accessible,no log on required

Disadvantages:  limitations on functions,dependant on internet,difficult to save/export it, can’t add media into it,can’s be used on ipads,slow to load

Use in classroom: This can be used for simple mind maps,good and easy substitute for paper.


Description: Maths website contains resources,games and activities

Advantages: Free, easy to use,  motivating, fun, colourful, different pages for children,teachers and parents

Disadvantages: May be distracting, lots of ads

Use in the classroom:  Free computer time, allocated maths lesson


Description:  Animated website with free videos ,worksheets, activities and quizzes

Advantages: Free to sign up, lots of subject areas

Disadvantages: Need to sign up, not all activities are free

Use in classroom: Great for watching informative and interesting videos.

Description: Create cartoons and comics strips online

Advantages: Simple and easy to use, sign up free, availability to export it (save it, email,print)

Disadvantages:  Need to sign up,can get very distracting making it easy for children to get off task

Use in classroom: Get the children to plan a comic strip, then get them to create it online using toondoo. Make sure children stick to their plan so they do not get off task.

5. Survey Monkey

Description: A site which can be used to generate professional surveys.

Advantages: Free, easy to use, you can customize it,looks proffessional

Disadvantages: If you want to access all the features you may need to subscribe for a paid membership, students can write anything in these survey therefore the teacher needs to closely monitor what is being written is appropriate.

Use in classrooms: Surveys can be used in classroom for all sorts of things from what students what to do in their free time on Friday to finding out the most popular food in the school canteen which then can be used for a maths lesson, surveys can also be used so students can give each other of their peers feedback on a presentaion that was presented.

6. Google News Archive

Description: Google news archive is a google search which can be used to search old newspapers.

Advantages: Free, easy to search,easy access, no need to sign up,great tool to use when researching

Disadvantages: Some of the language used may be a little advanced and difficult to understand especially for primary school students.

Use in classroom: Google New archive can be used in all areas at school. Some of these areas may be history,english,science. Google news archive can be used to teach students about different text types such as newspapers and articles, it can also be used for historical content in history as well as teaching students about what a primary source looks like. Students can also use Google archive to help them find information in research tasks.

7. Text2MindMap

Descritption: Text2MinMap is another online brainstorming tool similar to

Advantages:  Free, no need to login in,quick to use no need to wait long periods for things to load, can be saved.

Disadvantages: Text 2 mind map can be a little confusing when it comes to writing  in your brainstorm as the text can only be written in a certain place, there is also very little variation in colours and fonts.

Use in classroom: Text2MindMap can be used to create simple mind maps in class instead of writing them up by hand.

8. Scootle

Description: Scootle is an education website providing teachers with online digital Le@rning Federation resources, which are linked to the Australian Curriculum as well as ideas for lessons which are also linked to the curriculum.

Advantages: Resources are Australian curriculum linked, easy to access multiple resources, resources cover all the subject areas, easy to use, easy to search for specific resources, sign up is free.

Disadvantages: Need to sign up to use resources

Use in classroom: Scootle resources can definitely be used in the classroom in all learning areas since all resources are supported by the curriculum.

9. Funschool.Kaboose

Description: Funschool.Kaboose is a website where there is interactive educative games, craft ideas,printables and activities online.

Advantages: No need to sign up, games are educative, great craft ideas to use in the classroom,free and interactive as well as a range of topics such as science, under the sea etc.

Disadvantages: American based, some topics don’t relate to what is taught at school, e.g. Girl Power?  this topic is not educative or relevant.

Use in classroom: Funschool.Kaboose can be used when students have free computer time, teachers can also use it to find great craft activities to use in the classroom.

10.Khan Academy

Description: The Khan Academy is a non-profit educational website where there is over 4000 videos which  can be searched to teach students everything for Algebra to Humanities.

Advantages:  Free, thousands of videos, set out in a way students can organise their thoughts,easy to use and search for videos,interactive, range of topics.

Disadvantages: Videos may take a while to load, some videos may also be a little confusing and not explain the concept in a clear way

Use in classroom: This should be used with older students since the videos can contain a lot of content, students could use this to revise for tests or exams. In the classroom the teacher may also use Khan Academy to introduce a topic by showing a short video about the topic.

The Digital Natives Debate

digital nTechnology is very well present in our society today, there is no escaping it, from using your mobile phone to check Facebook to using your laptop to type up a report; technology is EVERYWHERE!

This has led to a new generation known as ‘Digital Natives’. Digital Natives are young people who have grown up with technology, it is said that this generation is extremely different to other generations because of them growing up in a fast-paced technologically advanced world, it is a common understanding in society today that they learn differently, think differently, behave differently and even have their own language because of growing up in a world where there is continuous change and a large exposure to technology. This common understanding is somewhat correct and is seen as a big problem in education. It now seems education must now change from the traditional organised teaching styles to more tech-savvy styles to meet the needs of this new generation known as ‘Digital Natives’ This debate seems to be never ending for years we’ve now talked about the growing gap between the younger generations and the older ones and the issue of technology in education but we seem to be getting nowhere, repeating the same things over and over.

The article “Digital Natives” by Bennett. S ,focuses on research data about how young people use technology, starting with how accessible it actually is, it’s quite surprising that not all young people (school-aged children) have genuine access to technology , that is due to the differences in home access and how parents value technology as an educational or recreational device. The study also highlighted how important the cost of a device was to university students, often opting for the most affordable device. It then continued by asking what kind of activities were accessed, these results showed the variation of what was being accessed according to the age group, gender and socio-economic status (Selwyn 2008). Giving us the conclusion that not all ‘digital natives’ have the same characteristics. A highly important fact that must be taken into account.

Bennett. S then raised the issue of education and technology….

Bennett. S drew the attention to the fact that not all so-called ‘digital-natives’ shared the same characteristics, therefore the issue of technology in education and how education should rapidly change to keep up with the tech-savvy Gen X is flawed. However before you agree or disagree with this he clearly stated that this did not mean that education shouldn’t change at all. Instead we should now use this new information to help us with the technology in education debate. As research shows that there is a diversity of learners experiences with technology, teachers must not assume all students have the correct skills to use technology in an academic setting. Therefore we must properly teach our students how to responsibly and correctly use technology in academic practices.

Bennett. S also talks about how we can further advance the debate over the ‘digital natives’. Bennett talks about how we need to change the tenor of the debate. He mentions that we must not panic over the increase on technology and must remember many of the issues faced with technology such as cyber- bullying or complaining about teachers are not 100% new they have now just become more visible, For example bullying is still regarded as bullying whether it’s done online or face to face, that means many anti-bullying strategies can still be effective or tweaked a little to be able to be used with technology.

As a society I think we’ve put too much attention on the ‘sudden’ technological movement and therefore have labelled technology as well as the inter-connected issues that arise as a scary new phenomenon. In fact technology isn’t scary at all, change is part of the world we live in, Many things have changed since the 20th century it’s just like that, we need to accept the change and learn to live with technology and learn to how to cope and problem solve the issues faced with it, just like we did back in the 20th century when ‘digital natives’ did not exists. We have got to stop debating about technology and start making and accepting the changes; for once lets accept that education needs to change and start using more technology but also start teaching the digital natives how to use it properly and correctly in not just everyday life but in academic practices as well. TECHNOLOGY IS HERE TO STAY!